Bullying, harassment, discrimination and violence are all interpersonal behaviours that can create or contribute to negative social environments. All school communities should have clear definitions outlined in their school policies and procedures for bullying, harassment, discrimination and violence. The following definitions contain the key characteristics and have been taken from Chapter 4 in the National Safe Schools Framework Resource Manual (PDF, 1.5MB) .
Bullying (click to expand)
Bullying is repeated verbal, physical, social or psychological behaviour that is harmful and involves the misuse of power by an individual or group towards one or more persons.
Behaviours that do not constitute bullying include:
- mutual arguments and disagreements (where there is no power imbalance)
- not liking someone or a single act of social rejection
- one-off acts of meanness or spite
- isolated incidents of aggression, intimidation or violence.
However, these conflicts still need to be addressed and resolved.
Cyberbullying refers to bullying that is carried out through information and communication technologies.
Likewise not all online issues are cyberbullying. Learn more about cybersafety issues, including cyberbullying.
A student who bullies others may: (click to expand)
- repeatedly tease, imitate or make fun of the same targets
- feel the need to dominate or control others
- show no compassion for someone who's experiencing bullying
- repeatedly exclude or ignore the same target
- whisper behind their backs on a frequent basis.
Harassment (click to expand)
Harassment is behaviour that targets an individual or group due to their:
- identity, race, culture or ethnic origin
- physical characteristics
- sexual orientation
- marital, parenting or economic status
- ability or disability.
It offends, humiliates, intimidates or creates a hostile environment.
It may be:
- an ongoing pattern of behaviour or a single act
- directed randomly or towards the same person(s)
- intentional or unintentional.
Examples of Harassment: (click to expand)
Some examples of harassment include where students:
- ridicule someone who doesn't speak English
- tease someone who wears different clothes due to religion/beliefs
- make suggestive comments or insults based on sex
- make fun of someone who needs a wheelchair or walking frame for mobility
- put down someone who is obese or very thin
- tell offensive jokes deliberately to put down a particular societal group.
Discrimination (click to expand)
Examples of Discrimination: (click to expand)
Some examples of discrimination include where students:
- exclude children of a different culture from a friendship group
- don't let children of a different race sit near them at lunch
- refuse to include a student with a disability in their game.
Discrimination interferes with the legal right of all people to be treated fairly and have the same opportunities as everyone else.
Violence (click to expand)
Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against another person(s) that results in psychological harm, injury or in some cases death. It may involve provoked or unprovoked acts and can be a single incident, a random act or can occur over time.
Types of Violence: (click to expand)
Violence can fall into three basic categories:
- self-directed violence (e.g. self abuse and suicide)
- collective violence (e.g. social and political violence including war and terrorism)
- interpersonal violence (e.g. family and intimate partner violence, community violence involving an acquaintance or stranger).
Some examples of violence a teacher may observe include:
- throwing items
- hitting with fists
- using a sharp instrument
- hitting with an object
- pulling hair.
It is important to remember that bullying and violence are not the same issue. Violence is often an outcome and is certainly an arm of bullying. If bullying can be addressed in its earlier stages then many instances of violence could be prevented. It is important that bullying and violence are treated as separate issues with their own responses, but both issues are as important as each other and both can have a devastating effect on young people.